Friday, March 27, 2020
Biography of Bobby Seale, Black Panther Party Co-founder Bobby Seale (born October 22, 1936) co-founded the Black Panther Party with Huey P. Newton. The organization, which was the most well-known group launched during the black power movement, stood out for its free breakfast program and emphasis on self-defense- a departure from the nonviolent philosophy advocated by civil rights activists. Fast Facts: Bobby Seale Known For: Co-founder, along with Huey P. Newton, of the Black Panther PartyBorn: October 22, 1936 in Dallas, TexasParents: George and Thelma SealeEducation: Merritt Community CollegeSpouse(s): Artie Seale, Leslie M. Johnson-SealeChildren: Malik Seale, Jaime SealeNotable Quote: Ã¢â¬Å"You dont fight racism with racism, the best way to fight racism is with solidarity. Early Life and Education Bobby Seale, the first child of George and Thelma Seale, was born on October 22, 1936. He grew up with a brother (Jon), a sister (Betty), and a first cousin (Alvin Turner- the son of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s identical twin). In addition to Dallas, the family lived in other Texas cities, including San Antonio. Seales parents had a rocky relationship, separating and reconciling repeatedly. The family struggled financially and sometimes rented out parts of their home to other families to earn additional income. Seales father, George, was a carpenter who once built a home from the ground up. He was also physically abusive; Bobby Seale later described being whipped with a belt by his father at age 6. When the family moved to California, George Seale struggled to get carpentry work or join a union, as unions often excluded African Americans during the Jim Crow era. When George Seale did manage to enter a union, he was one of just of three black men in the state with union membership, according to Seale. As a teenager, Seale hauled groceries and mowed lawns to earn extra cash. He attended Berkeley High School but dropped out to sign up for the US Air Force in 1955. After a conflict with a commanding officer, Seale was dishonorably discharged. However, this setback did not deter him. He earned his high school diploma and made a living as a sheet metal mechanic for aerospace companies. He also worked as a comedian. In 1960, Seale enrolled in Merritt College, where he joined a black student group and his political consciousness took hold. Two years later, he met Huey P. Newton, the man with whom he would start the Black Panthers. Founding the Black Panther Party At a 1962 demonstration against the Kennedy Administrations naval blockade of Cuba, Seale befriended Huey Newton. Both men found inspiration in black radical Malcolm X and were devastated when he was assassinated in 1965. The next year, they decided to form a group to reflect their political beliefs, and the Black Panthers were born. The organization reflected Malcolm XÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of self-defense by any means necessary. The idea of armed African Americans proved controversial in the broader United States, but as the civil rights movement waned following the assassination of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., many young black Americans leaned towards radicalism and militancy. The Black Panthers were particularly concerned about racism in the Oakland Police Department, but before long, Panthers chapters sprang up nationwide. The Black Panther Party became most well known for their 10-point plan and free breakfast program. The 10-point plan included culturally-relevant teaching, employment, shelter, and exemption from military service for African Americans. Legal Battles In 1968, Bobby Seale and seven other protesters were charged with conspiring to incite a riot at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. When the trial date arrived, Seales lawyer was ill and unable to appear; the judge denied the request to delay the trial. Seale claimed the right to defend himself in order to advocate for his own constitutional rights, but the judge did not allow him to give an opening statement, cross-examine witnesses, or speak to the jury. Seale contended that the judge had denied him his right to counsel, and he began to speak out in protest during the proceedings. In response, the judge ordered him bound and gagged. Seale was chained (later strapped) to a chair, with his mouth and jaw strapped shut, for several days of the trial. Ultimately, the judge sentenced Seale to four years in prison for contempt of court. That sentence was later overturned, but it did not mark the end of SealeÃ¢â¬â¢s legal troubles. In 1970, Seale and another defendant were tried for killing a Black Panther believed to be a police informant. The hung jury resulted in a mistrial, so Seale was not convicted of the 1969 murder. As his court battles unfolded, Seale wrote a book tracing the history of the Black Panthers. The book, published in 1970, was titled Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton. But the time Seale spent behind bars awaiting the outcomes of various court cases had taken a toll on the group, which began to fall apart in his absence. The settling of the court cases saw Seale take charge of the Panthers again. In 1973, he changed focus by putting his bid in to become the mayor of Oakland. He placed second in the race. He left the Panthers the following year. In 1978, he wrote his autobiography, A Lonely Rage. Later Years In the 1970s, the black power movement subsided, and groups like the Black Panthers ceased to exist. Deaths, prison sentences, and internal conflicts spurred by initiatives like the FBIÃ¢â¬â¢s Counterintelligence Program played a role in the unraveling process. Bobby Seale remains politically active, giving talks on his life and activism at college campuses and other venues. More than 50 years after the Black Panthers formed, the group continues to influence politics, pop culture, and activism. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"Bobby Seale.Ã¢â¬ PBS.org.Bennett, Kitty. Bobby Seale: Black Panther leader was one of the Chicago Eight. AARP Bulletin, 27 August, 2010.Glass, Andrew. Kennedy imposes naval blockade of Cuba, Oct. 22, 1962. Politico, 22 October, 2009.Seale, Bobby. Ã¢â¬Å"Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party.Ã¢â¬ 1970.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Trouble Sleeping Learn How Long Caffeine Stays in Your System SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips How long does caffeine stay in your system? What is the half-life of caffeine? How does caffeine half-life differ between individuals? In this quick guide, we'll go over how long caffeine stays in the average person's body, what factors impact how long you'll feel the effects of caffeine, and what you can do to combat the caffeine jitters. Ultimately, we'll help you answer the key question: how long does caffeine stay in your body? How Long Does Caffeine Stay in Your Body? The Average Person Caffeine is absorbed by the membranes of your body incredibly quickly. Once you take in caffeine, you'll feel its full effects within 15-45 minutes. After that, your liver will start breaking down the caffeine into caffeine metabolites, which you will eventually excrete in urine. In the average adult, the half-life of caffeine is about 5-6 hours. This means that once take a dose of caffeine, you'll break down about half of that caffeine after 5-6 hours. So if you take in 200 mg of caffeine at 9 am, you'll still have about 100 mg left in your body between 2 and 3 pm. How Long Does Caffeine Affect You Specifically? So now you know that the average person experiences a caffeine half-life of about 5-6 hours. But how long after drinking that cup of coffee or downing that Mountain Dew will you still be feeling a buzz? How long does caffeine stay in your body in particular? That depends on a few factors. Your Unique Metabolism Caffeine is processed and broken down by a set of enzymes in the liver. How much of that enzyme you produce is determined by genetics. This means that some people metabolize (or break down) caffeine extra-slowly, and some people break it down so quickly they barely feel the stimulating effects of caffeine. The only way to really know how you metabolize caffeine is to have some and see what happens. If you are hypersensitive to caffeine, even small doses (think half a cup of coffee) may give you the "coffee jitters"- which can include feelings of anxiety, restlessness, nausea, diarrhea, heart palpitations, and general discomfort. If you are hyposensitive, you won't feel much of a stimulating effect from caffeine at a normal dose, even if you've never had it before. Note also that pregnant women metabolize caffeine much more slowly, with an average caffeine half-life of up to eight hours. Size of Caffeine Dose Whatever caffeine half-life you have, the size of the dose you take will make a big difference in how long you still feel the impact of caffeine. If you drink one espresso shot (which has about 50-65 mg of caffeine) and your personal caffeine half-life is about five hours, you'll have a pretty negligible amount of caffeine in your system ten hours after ingestion. However, if you drink four eight-oz. cups of coffee in a row, taking in about 400 mg of caffeine, you'll still have 100 mg of caffeine in your system after 10 hours- enough to keep you pretty buzzed. Any amount of caffeine in your system about 50 mg may be enough for you to still feel some effects. (Or even less if you're hypersensitive!) Note too that different products have different caffeine dosages. Coffee has more caffeine than black tea, which has more caffeine than green tea. Additionally, not all coffee brewing methods make equally strong coffee. For example, drip coffee has more caffeine than instant coffee. Even coffee from the same shop may have different caffeine content on different days! Your Caffeine Tolerance The more often you consume caffeine, the more tolerant you become to its effects. Regular coffee drinkers need to drink more and more coffee over time to get the same stimulating effects from caffeine that they did initially. If you're a new coffee drinker, expect to feel the impact of caffeine much more strongly than if you're a coffee veteran. (If you are a big coffee drinker, keep in mind that super-high caffeine doses are toxic. Try to moderate your intake so that you aren't constantly taking bigger and bigger doses.) Other Drugs You Take Other substances that you take into your body can impact how you metabolize caffeine and change the half-life of caffeine in your own body. For example, hormonal birth control can slow down how quickly you process caffeine, making you more sensitive to its effects. By contrast, regular smokers have a caffeine half-life of about three hours, making them less sensitive to the effects of caffeine. Other drugs can also impact how you process caffeine, so look up how caffeine interacts with any prescription drugs or other substances you are taking. Can You Speed Up the Half-Life of Caffeine? Feeling the caffeine jitters? Are you anxious, panicked, or nauseated? Can you speed up your body's processing of caffeine to make yourself feel better? In short, not really. There's not actually a reliable way to speed up the processing of caffeine in your liver in the short-term. However, here are some things you can do to help you feel better while you process the caffeine: Drink Water Drinking water won't "flush" your system of caffeine, in spite of the commonsense wisdom. However, caffeine is a diuretic, which means that it can cause dehydration. Drinking plenty of water will help minimize dehydration and help alleviate some of the symptomatic effects of the caffeine jitters. Eat Food Caffeine can suppress your appetite, so you may feel the impacts of low blood sugar, including nausea and headache, if you don't make a conscious effort to eat. Taking your caffeine with a meal will also slow down your processing of caffeine, which will make you less likely to have the jitters. Exercise While exercise won't make you metabolize caffeine any faster, it will help you to burn off some of the extra energy caused by caffeine's adrenaline release. This may help you feel better. Bottom Line: How Long Does Caffeine Stay in Your System? How long does caffeine stay in the body? Well, the average person will experience the half-life of caffeine at about 5-6 hours. But how long does caffeine stay in the body such that you still feel its effects? This depends on a few factors: Your unique metabolism: genetics plays a role in how fast your liver can metabolize caffeine. Size of caffeine dose: A larger dose will impact your body for longer. The average person will feel some impact of caffeine at about 50 mg or above. Your caffeine tolerance: The more often you take in caffeine, the less you'll feel its effects. Other drugs you take: Other substances you take can speed up or slow down your caffeine metabolizing processes. There's no way to actually process caffeine any faster in the short-term. But if you've had too much and you're uncomfortable, these things might help you feel better: Drink water: Caffeine can dehydrate you, so water will make you feel better. Eat food: Caffeine can suppress your appetite, so be sure to eat! Exercise: Exercise can help you burn off some of the excess energy caused by taking caffeine.