Saturday, August 31, 2019

Patriot Act Pro

Pro Patriot Act There are many advantages for expanding governmental surveillance and investigative powers. For instance, there’s the possibility of gaining invaluable information for future attacks, and also the potential for targeting terrorists who may be responsible for such attacks. According to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), â€Å"The FBI does not have to demonstrate probable cause, only declare it has â€Å"reasonable grounds† to suspect that library records may be relevant to an investigation. Supporters of such extreme measures believe in national security over privacy. They would much rather see a terrorist behind bars than protect their personalphone calls or bank accounts. Another claim is that the government wouldn’t investigate ordinary citizens, meaning that the law is exclusive to suspected criminals. Question: Do these claims qualify as being morally right? From the supporter’s perspective the answer is yes. The governmentâ₠¬â„¢s involvement is warranted in order to establish justice and ensure domestic tranquility (Department of Justice).The Act also provides increased funding for victims of terrorist attacks and their families, as well as for the rebuilding of business and infrastructure that are damaged by terrorism. The Patriot Act is divided into 10 separate sections known as â€Å"titles. † Each title contains numerous Sections that further clarify the provisions of the title. The emphasis was on being sure that should another attack be planned, the government would have the power to prevent it from being completed.Section 213 Sneak and Peek Warrants: this provision allows â€Å"sneak and peek† search warrants, which grants authorities authorization to search a home or business without immediately notifying the target of a probe. Investigators still have to explain why they want to delay the search notification and must eventually notify the target about the search (Abramson and God oy 2006). Under this provision the FBI is permitted to enter a home or an office in the absence of the occupant.During this secret investigation, FBI agents are authorized to take photographs, examine computer hard drives, and install a device known as the Magic Lantern. Once installed, the Magic Lantern, records all computer activity not just those transmitted over the internet. > This means FBI is not just searching anyone without a search warrant, the act states that they can search suspects of terror if and only if they have a reasonable reason and it is a terror, different from a crime.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Performance Development Plan

IntroductionThis development plan will focus on the characteristics of my learning team as well as my personal characteristics as their leader. This plan will allow me to assess the needs of my learning team as well as the ability to hone in on their strengths, areas for improvement, and resources needed to help them reach their career goals. This development plan will also allow me to determine how my leadership style will impact the success of the team and give me the ability to adapt to different behavioral styles by reviewing each individual DISC Platinum Rule – Behavioral Style Assessment. Personal and Individual Team CharacteristicsPersonal CharacteristicsBased on the DISC Platinum Rule – Behavioral Style Assessment that both my learning team and I completed, we fall into three major categories – Interactive, Dominance, and lastly Cautious Styles. In my personal assessment I was categorized primarily as Interactive in style and traits. Based on this knowled ge my primary style includes persuading, motivating, and entertaining others; whereas the assessment states my growth areas include attention to detail, short attention span, and low follow-through. The main focus or priority for me is people and being interactive, busy, and personal in the workplace setting.Individual Team CharacteristicsTwo of the team members, besides me, were also characterized as Interactive – â€Å"The Impresser†. Some additional characteristics in this category include wanting to achieve results with flair, judging people by their ability to make things happen, working harder when bigger risks or rewards are at stake, prefer to share in work and goals with people, wanting to do things the ‘best’ way, and become restless, short-tempered, lashing out when under pressure.Two team members had the Dominance Style traits which include individuals being time-sensitive, organized, and to the point. The Dominance Style is driven by two gover ning needs: the need to control and the need to achieve. The D Styles are goal-oriented go-getters who are most comfortable when they are in charge of people and situations. They want to accomplish many things now, so they focus on no-nonsense approaches to bottom-line results.The Dominance Styles seek expedience and are not afraid to bend the rules. They figure it is easier to beg forgiveness than to ask permission. The D Styles accept challenges, take authority, and plunge headfirst into solving problems. They take charge in a crisis. They are fast-paced, task-oriented, and work quickly and impressively by themselves, which means they become annoyed with delays. They are willing to challenge outdated thinking and ideas.Lastly, one team member had the Cautious Style traits which include analytical, persistent, systematic people who enjoy problem solving. They are detail-oriented, which makes them more concerned with content than style. The C Styles are task-oriented people who enjo y perfecting processes and working toward tangible results. They are almost always in control of their emotions and may become uncomfortable around people who are very out-going, e. g. , the Interactive Styles. Strengths and Growth Opportunities of Behavioral Styles StrengthsInteractive Style leaders’ primary strengths are their enthusiasm, persuasiveness, and sociability. Dominance Style leaders’ primary strengths are accepting challenge, ability to take authority, and go head first into solving problems. They have an ability to get things done and their decision making skills are very high. Cautious Style leaders’ primary strengths are their accuracy, dependability, independence, follow-through and organization.Growth OpportunitiesGrowth Opportunities for the Interactive Style of Behavior are broken into two categories with tasks and with people. Interactive Styles tend to underestimate the time and effort required by themselves or others to accomplish tasks. They also tend to be impatient, primarily when they are stressed or under pressure. Growth opportunities for the Dominance Style of Behavior include being broadening their perspectives.They need to learn to be effective outside of their comfort zone by considering different points of view and other ways to achieve their goals. Growth opportunities for the Cautious Style of Behavior include being more attentive to details and timely follow-through. Curiosity of these leaders may lead to digressions while at work. These leaders are found to be intense by nature and tend to be impatient with themselves and others, especially when things aren't going well.Development Plan for Each Behavioral StyleDevelopment Plans for the Team based on Behavioral StyleInteractive Style Development PlanIn order for Interactive Style leaders to be successful they need to be more selective about tasks that they take on and not be afraid or hesitate to ask others for help. When dealing with others they need to learn how to relax and enjoy regular recreation to ensure that they can handle their reactions in a proper manner to stress. Delegating tasks instead of taking everything on, asking for assistance on projects while coaching staff, will allow them to grow in their organizations, while still feeling like they are in the know.Not only will this allow and them to focus on other opportunities they are developing their staff. In order to be successful in the work environment they need to prioritize, organize, see tasks through completion, and write things down. As their leader, I will show them that I admire their hard work and accomplishments, support their feelings when possible, interact with them, support their ideas and show them my positive side. Being that I am an Interactive Style leader this will come naturally to me in dealing with other leaders of this style in my group.Dominance Style Development PlanIn order for these leaders to be successful they need to consider viewpoi nts of others and look outside the box for other ways to achieve goals. These leaders would benefit from being flexible in their decisions and this would help them solve problems more creatively. This not only allows for the leader to grow, but also develops more trust in the associates they are leading. As their leader I can provide precise data on projects that they are working on, allow them to work independently and do things within their limits, look for opportunities to modify their work-load focus, and allow them to take the lead.Being that both this style and the Interactive style both preferring faster pace we will get along well with pacing the workflows. Cautious Style Development Plan For Cautious Style leaders to be successful they need to learn to pace themselves. Taking time-outs during the workday may help allay their natural intensity. They need to remain positive when dealing with situations and people under pressure. If they are able to control their thoughts and emotions in such cases, then they can use their creativity to discover workable solutions.These leaders will benefit from staying focused on key priorities, sorting out tasks, outline expectations for associates, and allow others to take control of projects. This will not only allow the leader to balance their growth opportunities but will also allow their associates to gain more trust in the leader. As their leader, when I approach them for questions or projects I will ask them in a direct manner, show reasoning, provide explanations in writing, compliment them on their thoroughness, and ask tactfully how I may assist them if needed.ConclusionIn conclusion, after reviewing each individual assessment of my learning group as well as my personal assessment through the DISC Platinum Rule Behavioral Style Assessment, I have been able to review how each Style has their own strengths and weaknesses, and how to create a professional performance plan on helping each team member to be succes sful in their organization. The assessment has allowed me to have a better understanding of different behavioral characteristics as well as my own personal traits, strengths, and weakness. This will give each of us the ability to balance, adapt, and grow in our roles within our organizations.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Jamaica Kincaid “Girl” Essay

The story of Jamaica Kincaid â€Å"Girl† is about a mother giving the instructions to her daughter. The mother uses strict, demanding tone while parenting her daughter. She gives the orders, and expects listening and obedience, regardless what the girl says. Through mother’s words to her daughter, through the directions she wants her to follow, the mother reveals strictness, egocentricity, and exactingness that are her most conspicuous traits. The mother believes that numerous instructions will make her daughter become a proper lady. This story supports the idea that a woman should be domesticated. The mother or a speaker describes the household chores and wants her girl to do them correctly. â€Å"This is how you sweep a corner; this is how you sweep a whole house.’ (Kincaid 396) Considering the time this story was written, little women were not taught how to do a successful career, they were taught how to become good wives for their husbands. The mother is addressing her remarks to her daughter. She takes the position and does not listen to the girl. There is a gap in the relationship between two women, shown through the girl’s little speech. The mother is instructing how to act, talk, behave, and eat. However, this does not make her a bad mother. All that she wants is her daughter to know the values of life. The mother teaches her, probably, the same way her mother used to teach her. The mother tells her daughter how to cook and set up the table. â€Å"This is how you set a table for dinner with an important guest.† (Kincaid 396) On one hand, all that we see in this story is mother and her guidance. On the other hand, in spite of mother’s strictness and directness, she reveals her praiseworthy characteristics by willing to make her daughter a proper lady. She wants her daughter to have outstanding manners and to know how to behave in front of the men. I believe that the culture the author was writing this story in, plays a very important role in this story. The mother wants her daughter to become a proper lady by guiding her and providing her with the strict instructions. She believes that the more detailed she is, the better her daughter will know. Despite the commands and strictness, the daughter will learn the values of life.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Research Proposal Example Thus, while consumers may have desired to buy new electronics, especially high-tech equipment, most could not do so because they had limited ways of generating capital that they could use to allow the purchases (Hartman, 2010: p38). This can be seen in the losses suffered by such electronics companies as Motorola Mobility and Blackberry, which emphasized the profound effects of economic recession. The research will seek to evaluate the effects of the recession on behaviour of the consumer in the UK electronics industry, particularly with regards to the smartphone industry. Understanding the response of consumers to the economic downturn with regards to their buying behaviour is imperative for companies seeking to ensure future success (Chakrabarti, 2011: p56). While signs show that the UK economy is stabilizing, leading to questions about this research’s relevance, the changes to consumer behaviour by recessions tend to last for a long time. Therefore, even as economists signa l the end of the recession and beginning of recovery, this is unlikely to be reflected immediately by consumers in their buying behaviour. The UK economy’s current state has heavily burdened many companies across the country. The declining spending and tendency to save among consumers led to profit losses for many organizations, which have been predicted by experts to have long lasting effects (Ver Eecke, 2013: p82). Today, consumers are more aware of the pitfalls bedevilling spending above one’s means with improved financial education. This trend will portend challenges for marketers because the consumers now tend to do need evaluation, while also showing more selective behaviour in buying decisions. Thus, companies will be required to conduct a re-evaluation of marketing strategies with the aim of identifying effective was of product marketing, focusing on delivering value and meeting needs of the consumer (Chaston, 2009: p40). If the marketing

Gaining Leverage in Negotiations Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Gaining Leverage in Negotiations - Coursework Example French and Raven’s five sources of power (1956) refer to a research of where power comes from conducted by social psychologists John R. P. French and Bertram Raven (Changing Minds, 2015). French and Raven derived five bases of power that include legitimate power, coercive power, reward power, referent power, and expert power (Raven, 1990). Legitimate power manifests in kings, police officers, and managers and can achieve effective negotiations by taking advantage of the position to influence people since it is the position they obey and not the holder (Changing Minds, 2015). Coercive power possessed by dictators and bullies can achieve effective negotiations by demonstrating physical harm to the other party. Reward power is often evident in work places and can achieve effective negotiations by offering a reasonable reward to the other party in order to compel him or her to do as your wish. Referent power can apply in celebrities and social leaders who influence those who want to be like them by excluding them from the negotiations. Lastly, expert power can achieve effective negotiations by influencing others to demonstrate or boycott an

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The unique features of Newar Buddhism and their development Essay

The unique features of Newar Buddhism and their development - Essay Example This study will be concentrated on the special features of Newar Buddhism with regard to its organizational structure and major activities of its Sa-gha . In order to outline and evaluate the complex connections among the many important factors, this discussion shall be divided into three parts. A brief historic synopsis will give a general overview of the evolution of Buddhism in Nepal. Then the relevant features of Newar Buddhism, with respect to its own evolution, shall be presented. Finally, in the last part, there will be made an attempt to evaluate the influence of these features on the decline of Newar Buddhism. The mythology of Nepal reaches far back to countless eons, accounting for the lives of twenty-four previous mortal Buddhas4. According to the myth, the Katmandu Valley was a lake before Maà ±juÅ›rÄ « drained it with his sword to make it inhabitable. However, even in more recent times legends have remained difficult to separate from historic facts.5 The first of the five historic periods of the Katmandu Valley lasts until the 5th century AD and includes mythical and semi-mythical dynasties, such as the GopÄ la, the AhÄ «r and the KirÄ ta6. At least the KirÄ ta are known from traditional chronicles, and are said to have ruled the Katmandu Valley during the time of ÅšÄ kyamuni Buddha. The first major Indian power that recorded in relations to the Katmandu Valley was the early Gupta dynasty (1st – 4th century AD).7 Whereas Ashoka’s earlier visit to Kapilavasu in the 3rd century BC is accepted by historians, his alleged visit to the Katmandu Valley is not. The second period refers to the rule over a small area within the Katmandu Valley by the aristocratic Licchavi family (about 464 – 880 AD), which is known as the first line of Nepalese kings.8 The Chinese pilgrim Hsà ¼an-tsang recorded that various monasteries (Skt vihÄ ras) existed9 in the 7th century side by side with Hindu temples.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Management of Innovation and Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Management of Innovation and Change - Essay Example Yes, CHANGE is the primary asset that the company upholds giving it the kind of reputation that it deserves from all the efforts that its administrators prefer to apply in the process of giving the organization a boost to continuously grow in the industry. How do they deal with the change Like others, they need to consider several points of change management that surely gives them a chance to handle the challenges successfully. To be able to successfully apply change, there are at least ten (10) major ways that should be considered by the administrators collectively. Deriving these particular procedures from the method pattern created by several experts on the organizational management field of industries, the discussion of the methodologies that follow are expected to more meaningful change of organizational structures. It is very important that the organization's vision towards the changes to be applied are strongly identified as it will certainly describe whether the changes to be done are of great importance for the sake of the organization's progress or not. 2. Planning the Procedures to be Taken The plans are to be clarified as they are the ones that would set the path that the adjustments on the organization would actually take. Moreover, the plans shall serve as the guidelines to everyone involved in the adjustments, hence, they should be modified so as to meet the needs of the company and its employees as well. 3. Collaborating with involved Higher Management Authorities After the plans have been made, asking the approval of higher managerial departments should be searched for further suggestions that they may still imply on the program. 4. Deciding on the plan's further scheduled application The plan's application is to be decided by the higher level of management. Hence, the schedule of all the activities pertaining to the change shall be well taken into consideration by the said personnel. 5. Communicating to the people (stakeholders of the company including employees of the rank and file positions) Once everything has been fixed, letting the members of the organization know of the changes and the procedures by which the adjustments are to take place is at an utmost importance to consider. 6. Empowering the People Communicating is not enough, it is strongly suggested that the people be empowered further so as to gear them with the preparation that they need for the adjustments to be further applied in the organization. 7. Applying the Action Application of the plan is then to commence once everything has been set. 8. Appointing Personnel Appointing the people who are to be stationed as supervisors of the results of the change,

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Bauhaus and the Design School Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Bauhaus and the Design School - Essay Example The Bauhaus school of design underwent three different phases of development In the wake of World War I and all troubles it revealed there was a need to tap into the more rational aspects of everyday life. The sentiment was seized upon by famed architect Walter Gropius who opened the school in Wiemar. Gropius in a way was forwarding the area where Germany would seek an advantage in production, that is by producing common place article with an artistic aesthetic and remaining competitive relative to other economies with more resources. Whether this was the intention of Gropius and the early architects of Bauhaus is not entirely clear but it is perhaps specious to separate the Zeitgeist of the time from the ideas of the innovators. The Bauhaus School went through three different phases in its early history influenced by the philosophical leanings of its directors. Gropius was followed as director by Hannes Meyer when the school moved to Dessau in 1928. Meyer more of a formal thinker re moved much of the aesthetic underpinnings of Gropius and became more concerned with the influence of science and its translation into a greater sense of function. This turned the pendulum toward the functional aspect of products and perhaps subverted the original aim of the school; however, the school in retrospect was to go through this cycle of thesis and antithesis between function and form throughout its history. Meyer was succeed by Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe who once again reasserted the importance of aesthetics over function.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Arnold Lazarus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Arnold Lazarus - Essay Example Central to his work has been the phrase that started this report "Think Well-Act Well-Feel Well-Be-Well". This is his model and it is prominently displayed on his website. His contributions to the field have moved counselors into a better understanding of the "best practices" for certain disorders. Not only has he been a pioneer in the field but he has received hundreds of honors and opportunities in the past and in the world today. Lazarus was born in 1932 in Johannesburg South Africa. Not much is known about his life in South Africa but it is known that his early education started at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. While he was there he studied psychology and earn a B.A. degree. His interests lay in psychology and behavior. In 1956 he published his first paper in psychotherapy as his [perhaps] his Masters thesis entitled, "Behavior Therapy (Novel Guide, 2009). Lazarus came to America in 1963 to become a "visiting assistant professor" in psychology at Stanford University for one year. After that he went back to Witwatersrand University to lecture at their medical school for psychiatry. In 1966 he moved to America again to become the director of the Behavior Therapy Institute in Sausalito, California. He continued writing and in that year he published, Behavior Therapy Techniques with his colleague Joseph Wolpe (Novel Guide). By 1970, Lazarus became a visiting professor at Temple University Medical School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as a behavioral science professor. In each situation he continued to focus on human behavior and psychology. Lazarus is credited with being a pioneer in the field of psychotherapy. Prior to his work most psychotherapists used a "token economy" or other behavior technique that often took a lot of time and energy for the client to find relief. Lazarus saw that behavior therapy alone was not effective in treating some

Friday, August 23, 2019

Virtual Library Services for Distance Learners A Study on the Essay

Virtual Library Services for Distance Learners A Study on the Importance and Accessibility of the Support Services Available - Essay Example About 75% of colleges and universities in the United States currently offer distance learning courses at some level, with another 10% of medium and large sized institutions intending to do so in the future (Connick, 1999). According to the Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications in 2001, "The number of universities in the United States offering online degree courses would be an estimated 34% in the year 2002." Therefore, it is imperative that library resources and services in institutions of higher education meet the needs of all their students, wherever these students are located -- whether on a main campus, off campus, or in distance education programs. Higher learning institutions are able to describe the nature of change for distance learner's library needs, but seem less prepared to describe what changes are needed. College and university librarians are acutely aware that usage of their websites and electronic resources is growing. They observe that, since distance learners need electronic library resources, knowledge about the needs of their student users is limited (Kirby, 1999). As Pennsylvania State University ascertains, "A virtual library is a collection of information that is stored and accessed electronically. The information stored in the library should have a topic common to all the data" (2001). For example, a virtual library can be designed for computer graphics, operating systems, or networks. These separate libraries can be combined under one common interface that deals with computers, but it is essential that the information contained within each library remain separate. The purpose of a virtual library is to provide a central location for accessing information on a particular topic. The last thing a user wants to happen when he/she searches for information about computer graphics is to get information on operating systems. A virtual library must keep topics separate; otherwise it would be totally useless. A virtual library should also have a user interface that is easy to use. Definitions of distance learning vary. According to LaSalle University, in its simplest terms, distance learning takes place when the student and instructor are separated by physical distance (2005). The terms distance education and open learning are synonymous with distance learning. Distributed learning is another synonym, usually referring more specifically to programs where courses are taught online, and collaboration and virtual interaction among students in the same course are encouraged (Connick, 1999). For purposes of this study, distance learning and distance education will be used synonymously to mean that the student and the instructional source are separated by physical distance, that they may interact synchronously or asynchronously, and that course delivery methods include the use of various kinds of current technology. Virtual library and digital library also will be used synonymously to mean that a collection of information is stored and accessed electronically. The profile of a distance learner is one of an older person compared to an average person at conventional colleges and university. Thompson (1998) cites several studies that corroborate that the average age of distance learners lies

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Impacts Of Poverty On Student’s Achievement Essay Example for Free

Impacts Of Poverty On Student’s Achievement Essay Poverty is an issue faced by more children in our nation. Children face problems related to poverty during their schooling. The price that children pay out of poverty is incredibly high than anyone can imagine. Each year, schools admit large numbers of children with needs brought about by poverty which is an issue that the school is usually not prepared to deal with. Poverty is a risk factor in the process of student’s education. This paper examines the impacts of poverty on teaching and learning which determines the student’s academic achievement. The concept of being at risk This term refers to students who are faced by life’s social circumstances such as poverty that puts them at risk of underachieving in school. There are many risk factors which increases the chances of a student to failure. However poverty is regarded a major risk factor due to its compound effect. Some of the factors that are related to poverty and put a student at greater risk of failing include, very young parents, unemployment, low educational level parents, substance abuse, exposure to inadequate or improper educational experiences, dangerous neighborhood, mobility, abuse and neglect as well as homelessness. (Gromard, 2003) These factors affect the physical status of the children as in dressing, the type of food they eat, their personal effects are usually of low quality or cheap. The physical disparities in among the students cause a wide gap between the poor students and their peers from middle or upper class families. Sometimes the isolation of this group of students is automatic in that they themselves assume that others do not want to associate with them. Teachers may also contribute in perceiving students in accordance to their social classes. This is however a rare case because teachers are professionals. Nevertheless, there are some instances that the teacher may talk about an issue in the process of teaching and unintentionally touch the students from poverty stricken families. For example in studying population, the teacher may teach about demographics of poverty which is inevitable. This students may change their attitude towards the teacher and hence the subject. (Knapps, Shields, Clementina, 2001) High mobility is a symptom associated with poverty in connection to other surrounding factors. Students who come from poor families may live in daily or monthly rent houses. This is makes them to move day in day out as their parents look for jobs or runs away from problems like abusive spouses, financial responsibilities or criminal records. This kind of situation may also put the poor family homeless. The conditions they live in affect their education achievement. This result from the emotional impact that moving impacts on children. The children also are forced to join new schools occasionally where they may find it very difficult to adapt. When this factor combines with other issues related to poverty, overwhelming effects on the students’ social, emotional and cognitive development are experienced. Students from poor families attend school irregularly. Transfers to new schools are a routine which brings about difficulty in socialization with new friends in the new school. This may make the student to become either withdrawn or hostile due to their experiences in their past attempts to make friends. The student may therefore develop an attitude of ‘why bother’ with regard to both social and academic aspect schooling as they will after all be moving soon. Due to the various reasons of moving, which are often abrupt, the student come to the new school without records from their previous school which makes it difficult for the school to track the records. As a result, teachers lack the slightest idea of what the student have or haven’t leant. It is a big challenge for the school to place the new students in a class and provide them with the additional services they may require. Even when the school succeeds in placing the new students in class and providing these services, these students will likely move within the school year. It is also difficult for teachers to teach these kinds of students something valuable as they rarely concentrate. Children from poor families become aware of the social economic classes that exist in the society at a very tender age. They grow being aware of their own class and that of their peers which make them to develop a class related attitude as early as in their elementary schooling years. This attitude id carried on throughout their lives in school. Inferiority complex or aggressiveness may be the end result of this effect of poverty in the student’s life. However teachers can help children build up caring and sensitivity towards various cultures including social classes. Lessons and activities in the school should be designed on how children perceive the world and themselves during the different stages of development. For example at the age of eleven, children can comfortably reflect on the causes and solutions to poverty. Achievement gap Achievement gap is the difference in academic achievement between children from various groups or classes in relation to ethnic, income or race. The achievement of students is generally lower than that of middle and upper classes. However at lower levels, children of poverty achieve more than their peers from well to do families. Children from low income families have more in their minds than quizzes, homework or extracurricular activities. As pointed out earlier in this work some may have spent their nights in the streets due to homelessness, at camps or compounds of their friends or relatives. Therefore they are often engaged in thinking about where they will spend that night as well as caring about their parents who go through hardships trying to look for a living for the family. This affects their concentration in class and other school activities hence affect their performance academically as well as socially. (Brown, 2000) The reason for variation in achievement of students is determined by the social environment the students come from and the education that they receive in school. Poverty influences the quality of student’s learning behaviors, their past experiences with education, home environment and sometimes the teacher’s attitude which greatly affect the individual student performance. Students from poor or low income families are generally worried too much about themselves. They usually feel out of place when interacting with children in other social classes. They may feel that the society is unfair by placing them in poverty. The students may decline from participating in class activities and this affects their learning in school. As proposed by Salvin 2001, schools impact on students’ academic achievements are powerful and the success of all the students regardless of their social economic class depend on the teachers’ perception of these students as at promise rather than at risk and at the same time preparing them to get to their full potentials in life. A good education that is focused is usually the only means of breaking the vicious cycle of poverty for the poor children. These children require an education founded in high standards with high expectation for all. The curriculum should be aligned to ensure that a meticulous and assessment go hand in hand with the standards. The curriculum should avoid a decrease in opportunities for the students from the poor background. What usually takes place in the classroom has influence on the achievement of the students and hence teachers should be careful when passing information to students. (Plumber, 2004) The teacher should avoid at all costs any activity that may discriminate students from poor backgrounds. The content of education should be of value and cultural relevant. Teachers should be aware that the instructional and classroom management methods do not necessarily work well for poor students. The teachers can help in closing the achievement gap.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Investigating The Causal Natures of Chance and Spontaneity Essay Example for Free

Investigating The Causal Natures of Chance and Spontaneity Essay After introducing the principle causes (efficient, formal, material, final), Aristotle talks about chance and spontaneity in Book II, (Physics) for the purpose of investigating their place among the said causes. Aristotle bases his enquiry on the observation that in history, these terms are conflictive in their interpretation. Some people say that everything that we consider luck or spontaneity really has some underlying definite cause. Yet there are other people, such as Empedocles, who invoke chance when describing the physics of air; or some, who â€Å"ascribe this heavenly sphere and all the worlds to spontaneity† (196a 25). In setting out to elucidate the nature of these terms and their place among the causes, Aristotle contends that chance and spontaneity are not explanatory causes of their own, but concurrent causes. By drawing from Aristotle’s view on nature and deliberate intention, this essay sets out to develop a clear understanding of the term concurrent in relation to chance and spontaneity. Aristotle begins his account with the basic observation that some things always occur in the same way and some things occur for the most part in the same way. Yet some occurrences are exceptional-this third category, according to Aristotle, is the class of chance and spontaneity: â€Å"†¦as there is a third class of events besides these two-events which all say are ‘by chance’-it is plain that there is such a thing as chance and spontaneity† (196b 12-14). He continues to state that events that occur, but that do not occur as a direct result of intent (thought) or nature, but rather incidentally, â€Å"are said to be ‘by chance’† (196b 24). Here, we can identify what constitutes an event of chance or spontaneity. It seems that when the specific cause does not yield the intended result always or for the most part, then the result is produced by chance or spontaneity. Conversely, when the cause does yield the intended result always or for the most part, then chance or spontaneity has not affected the process. At this point, it is necessary to distinguish chance from spontaneity. Clearly then, when events directed towards an end â€Å"do not come to pass for the sake of what actually results, and (3) have an external cause† (197b 18-19) we ascribe this to spontaneity and chance. Chance follows this same structure, but differs only in that the external cause is the deliberate intent of rational beings. In other words, chance exists only for â€Å"agents that are capable of good fortune and of moral actions† (197b 1-2); for rational beings that are capable of â€Å"intelligent deliberation† (197a 2). Spontaneity, on the other hand, â€Å"is found both in the lower animals and in many inanimate objects† (197b 14-15). Before analyzing the way that chance and spontaneity are concurrent causes, it is necessary to understand Aristotle’s example of the house and house builder. The efficient (and determinable) cause is that which can build the house, while the concurrent cause (the builder’s skin tone or musical ability) is infinite in range, (and thus is indeterminable). By ‘concurrent cause’, it follows that chance and spontaneity are indeed some form of cause, for †Ã¢â‚¬ ¦just as a thing is something either in virtue of itself or incidentally, so it may be a cause† (196b 25-26). Aristotle further states that they (chance and spontaneity) come â€Å"to pass among events which are for the sake of something†. 196b 30-31) Thus, chance and spontaneity are causes by virtue of concurrence with a principle cause, and occur concurrently with events directed towards an end. Yet, what does it mean to say that chance or spontaneity occur concurrently with a cause directed towards an end? First, we will investigate chance as a concurrent cause. In the example in chapter 5, a man goes to the market with a specific purpose (to buy fruits for example), and by chance, he meets his debtor and collects subscriptions for a feast. According to Aristotle, if â€Å"he had gone of deliberate purpose and for the sake of this [to collect the money]-if he always or normally went there when he was collecting payments-he would not be said to have gone ‘by chance. ’† (197a 4-6) We have established that, for this event to be one that occurred by chance, it is necessary both that the man travel to the market with a purpose other than to collect the money, and that the man not frequent the market with this purpose. It follows that collecting the money is not â€Å"a cause present in himself† (197a 1) because it is not his intent at the time. Thus, we only invoke chance when the event is not intended to occur by the rational agents involved. It seems that the event can be explained by the coinciding of each of the individuals’ efficient causes. In the case of chance, and not spontaneity, we are dealing with â€Å"those actions for the sake of something which involve purpose† (197a 6); implying intelligent reflection. This is important to note, as the individual causes of each person stems from their own â€Å"intelligent deliberation[s]†-the haracterizing difference between spontaneity and chance. In Ethics (III), Aristotle argues that humans have control over their own actions, that they are able to choose the means to their end in view. Applied to this scenario, the act of going to buy fruits (the efficient cause) by the collector, and the separate efficient cause of the debtor, intersected to produce an unintended encounter. Yet exactly how chance occurs concurrently is still ambiguous-for it seems that chance is just an observation of the unlikelihood of the two events coinciding. Clearly the conclusion here is that chance does not provide the true cause of the meeting, â€Å"it is not the cause-without qualification-of anything† (197a 14). Aristotle’s example in chapter 5, in which â€Å"the pale or the musical† (196b 27) are incidental causes of the house builder, seems to be analogous to the example of the market place. By this, it seems that chance occurs concurrently with any or one of the 4 causes in the same way that musical talent is a concurrent cause of the house. Plainly, the house builder’s skin tone or musical ability does not provide an explanatory cause for the construction of the house. There are an infinite number of accidental traits that the builder could have which would be irrelevant to the construction of the house. Thus, the only way to see this chance as concurrent is to conclude that it is simultaneously present in the builder (who is an efficient cause). By equivalence, â€Å"the causes of the man’s coming and getting the money are innumerable† (197a 16), (for he could have gone to the market for many reasons). Yet, it is clear that only one intended action could cause the unintentional result of the meeting. Given these assertions, it seems correct to say that events occurring by chance are unintentional (the agent had no intention of this result at that time). The reason for this is because the primary causes are intentional. In the building of a chair, for example, Aristotle would agree that all 4 causes are intentional: for the creator intends a final purpose for the chair, builds it purposefully with a certain material, builds it according to a form which he has chosen, and knows that he is the cause of its’ existence as a chair. Thus, the causes of events are always intentional, while chance events are unintentional (on the part of the rational agents); and like the accidental traits of the builder, occur simultaneously with the primary causes. Given that there are an infinite number of acts that a rational being may choose, it is clear that only some of these actions can result in an event of chance. As Aristotle puts it â€Å"some incidental causes are more relevant than others† (197a 24). It follows that we invoke ‘chance’ only when the purposeful actions of a rational agent coincide with other actions and produce an unintended event. Thus, it now seems reasonable to say that only a specific chance ‘cause’ (going to buy fruits) could produce the event deemed chanceful (the meeting). Since only some intentional acts will result in an event of chance, (an event unintended by the person’s actions), it makes sense to say that a chance cause occurs simultaneously in the individual with the efficient cause, for it is this cause in him (the efficient cause) that leads him to the improbable result. It is at this point that we turn to spontaneity, which according to Aristotle, is in the realm of lower animals and the inanimate-things incapable of deliberate intention. Aristotle views natural things as those which, â€Å"by a continuous movement originated from an internal principle, arrive at some completion†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (199b 18). He uses the example of the doctor doctoring himself to illustrate how natural things have within them a final cause, by which form guides material to achieve this end (Physics II:8). So while man can deliberately choose a means to an end, and in doing so may accidentally intersect with another individual and deem their encounter chanceful, natural things do not deliberately chose. The natural motion is â€Å"seeking an end† (199a 5)- but this final cause within the natural thing is not a deliberate choice of intelligent deliberation. Unless impeded by a chance natural event that is irrelevant to the end in view, the natural process will realize it’s end; for nature does nothing in vain, nothing superfluous (On the Heavens). The rain clouds forming and dropping over the crops for example, are not the result of chance of spontaneity (198b 19). All natural things have a function in a greater whole and within their being have a final cause to which they form. It is for this reason that Aristotle says that when a natural process does not attain it’s end according to it’s final cause, the means to this accidental result were â€Å"in vain† (197b 24). How does spontaneity occur concurrently then? Since natural things have a â€Å"cause that operates for a purpose† (196b 32), it must be when this end is not attained, as we have seen, that spontaneity has occurred concurrently. In the case of chance, as we have seen, the event of chance occurs because humans have an infinite number of actions to chose from. With nature, however, Aristotle does not suggest that nature itself has a deliberate intention. Necessarily then, it is when a natural process is affected by another natural process or human deliberation that it diverts from it’s final cause, and in doing so, can produce events of spontaneity. Thus, while a human may chose the way in which he achieves his end, and in doing so may unknowingly chose an action which will lead to an improbable event, natural things change from potentiality to actuality in strict accordance with the final cause within them. Spontaneity occurring concurrently with another cause of a natural thing does not constitute a fifth cause, but is only an indication that the process did not follow completely it’s natural course (it’s final cause) and was impeded by an external event (either natural or a result of intelligent deliberation). Conclusively, chance occurs concurrently with the efficient cause of the individual in the sense that it is a simultaneously present, for only this specific efficient cause could lead to the chance event. Chance is however not an explanatory cause of it’s own, and the event considered chanceful can be explained solely with the individual efficient causes of the persons. Spontaneity occurring concurrently is thus identical to the way chance occurs concurrently, yet natural processes have specific inherent purposes-they are not events resulting from deliberate intent. As a result, spontaneity is said to occur when natural processes do not attain their end (the process was ‘in vain’), and are affected by an external event (deliberate or natural), thus producing an improbable event.

Impact of the Discretionary Social Fund

Impact of the Discretionary Social Fund The Discretionary Social Fund: Discretion but Little Valour! The introduction of the Social Fund in 1988 was politically driven. Prior to its introduction, there were available a series of grants (â€Å"Single Payments†) which were available as of right. The imperative which drove the measure was the need to constrain the ever-burgeoning Social Security budget. Of course, certain of the stated aims were superficially laudable[1]: â€Å"To concentrate attention and help on those applicants facing greatest difficulties in managing on their income; To enable a more varied response to inescapable individual need than could be achieved under the previous rules; To break new ground in the field of community care† However, it might be argued that in pursuing the aims of containing the Social Security budget without adversely affecting the efficiency of the main Income Support scheme, the three objectives described above have become neglected or even prejudiced. So much so that the Select Committee on Social Security[2] has questioned whether the Fund has succeeded in its stated objective of helping the poorest and most vulnerable in society and has urged the Government radically to reassess (â€Å"urgent overhaul and an injection of funds†) the working of the fund, in particular â€Å"so that it may work to enhance the strategy to reduce child poverty, rather than work against it†. Particular concern has been expressed by charities working in the field of child poverty[3]. The Discretionary Social Fund operates within fiscal policies and weightings and is subject to cash limits for each administrative area. This gives rise to criticism that applications to the Fund are subject to both a â€Å"postcode† and a â€Å"calendar lottery†. The components of the Social Fund are: Community Care Grants (â€Å"CCGsâ€Å"); Budgeting Loans; and Crisis Loans. By contrast with the previous system, the availability of grants as opposed to loans has become severely restricted. The FWA[4] acknowledges that while CCGs are intended to help people remain or re-establish themselves within the community: â€Å"†¦decisions are discretionary and are subject to cash limits, what counts as exceptional pressure can vary and the Social Fund Inspectors regularly see cases that have been refused when qualifying conditions have been met and a payment should have been granted.† More pernicious still is the shift in emphasis to loans. This may be presented politically as an admirable social objective, discouraging continued reliance on â€Å"hand outs† and encouraging a sense of financial self-discipline and responsibility. In reality, the insistence upon repayment militates against the escape from poverty of those of the most limited means. The principle which underlies Budgeting Loans is again admirable: interest free lending to those who are in difficulty budgeting after a period on benefits and usually used for the purchase of essential household items such as beds and cookers. Admittedly they provide invaluable support to those who are unable to access other forms of credit and are directly repayable from benefit thus ensuring repayment discipline. However, they are also subject to the â€Å"postcode lottery† described above and the repayment rates are high and inflexible (78 weeks at between 5%-25% of benefit). Strict rules discourage repeat applications or â€Å"topping up†. The end result is a failure adequately to meet the needs of many poor families giving rise to particular concern for the welfare of the children within such households. This is as a result of what should have been predicted to be an unacceptable imkpact upon weekly income: benefit rates are by definition calculated to meet the su bsistence expenses of the family unit in question. Deductions from such a minimal level of income cannot fail to lead to hardship. However, a more positive evaluation of the Social Fund is supplied by the Department for Work and Pensions[5] which describes it as â€Å"an extremely important and highly valued source of financial support for recipients. It had a positive impact on recipients’ life situation, and made a considerable difference to the housing condition in which people lived.† However, in common with the FWA, the authors of this report acknowledge that â€Å"there was limited knowledge of rules and eligibility criteria among recipients† and â€Å"there may also be scope to providing more training to staff on some of the barriers that recipients face when applying† and to â€Å"offer financial advice to recipients when providing information on the Social Fund†. There are also glaring deficiencies in the procedure by which Social Fund decisions may be reviewed. Dissatisfied claimants may seek internal reviews of initial decisions and further review by the Social Fund Inspectors of the Independent Review Service of the Social Fund. Such decisions are themselves susceptible to judicial review. However, as Pick and Sunkin[6] question: â€Å"Created out of compromise, is the IRS review system to be regarded as an administrative device for deflecting criticism of an unsound system by means of symbolic due process..?† It is not possible in a submission of this length to do more than scratch the surface of the impact of the discretionary social fund. However, as has been demonstrated, the system is fundamentally flawed in principle and defective in operation. There is an appalling parallel with the operation of the much-maligned Child Support Agency. The latter was born of a political desire to reduce the burden imposed on the social security budget by feckless parents but has in many instances signally failed to deliver benefit to the intended recipients. The loan-dominated mechanism of the Social Fund similarly fails to meet the avowed social policy objectives of the government. Bibliography Buck, T. Smith, R., A Critical Literature Review of the Social Fund, (Summary Report) for The National Audit Office (7 April 2004) Department for Work and Pensions, The Discretionary Social Fund and Money Management, Research Report No 241 (2005) Family Welfare Association, ‘Like it or Lump It’, A Role for the Social Fund in Ending Child Poverty, April 2002 Pick, K. Sunkin, M., The Changing Impact of Judicial Review: The Independent Review Service of the Social Fund, (2001) PL 736 Select Committee on Social Security, Third Report, The Social Fund: A Lifeline for the Poor Or the Fund that Likes to Say No? (2001) HC 232 Footnotes [1] Select Committee on Social Security, Third Report, The Social Fund: A Lifeline for the Poor Or the Fund that Likes to Say No? (2001) HC 232, para.1 [2] Op. Cit., paras.117-118 [3] Family Welfare Association, ‘Like it or Lump It’, A Role for the Social Fund in Ending Child Poverty, April 2002 [4] Op. Cit., Chapter 2 [5] Department for Work and Pensions, The Discretionary Social Fund and Money Management, Research Report No 241 (2005), p.5 [6] Pick, K. Sunkin, M., The Changing Impact of Judicial Review: The Independent Review Service of the Social Fund, (2001) PL 736 at p.740

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Malaria Essay -- essays research papers fc

Malaria (also called biduoterian fever, blackwater fever, falciparum malaria, plasmodium, Quartan malaria, and tertian malaria) is one of the most infectious and most common diseases in the world. This serious, sometimes-fatal disease is caused by a parasite that is carried by a certain species of mosquito called the Anopheles. It claims more lives every year than any other transmissible disease except tuberculosis. Every year, five hundred million adults and children (around nine percent of the world’s population) contract the disease and of these, one hundred million people die. Children are more susceptible to the disease than adults, and in Africa, where ninety percent of the world’s cases occur and where eighty percent of the cases are treated at home, one in twenty children die of the disease before they reach the age of five. Pregnant women are also more vulnerable to disease and in certain parts of Africa, they are four times as likely to contract the disease a nd only half as likely to survive it. The most common sites of malaria-carrying mosquitoes is in tropical and subtropical areas with warm climates. Also, there must be a source of water, such as a lake, ocean, or stream, because this is where the mosquitoes breed. While Africa is the site of most malaria cases, there are a few other countries that account for some of the malaria cases. In fact, in 1990, seventy-five percent of all recorded malaria cases outside Africa were condensed in nine countries, which were India, Brazil, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, and China. There was once a small malaria epidemic in the United States. It occurred mainly in Army families. This was because U.S. troops in other countries were not on the proper medication, contracted the disease, and brought it back to the United States. Malaria in humans is caused by four species of protozoa, sophisticated one-celled organisms, that can infect red blood cells. These four species are called Plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax, plasmodium malariae, and plasmodium ovale. The worst cases are caused by the Plasmodium falciparum species, which is also the species with the most resistance to drugs. To contract malaria, a mosquito, but not just any mosquito must bite a human. The only type of mosquito that can infect humans with the malaria virus is the Anopheles mosquito. While there are... ...cceptable consequence to keeping hundreds of human lives. Currently, there are a few different research projects dealing with malaria. For example, Dr. D. Lalloo is working on a project investing the effects of malaria in adolescents. Professor D. H. Molyneux is doing a research project on the effects of malaria on the HIV virus. Professor M. E. Molyneux is working on a project looking at diseases connected with malaria. There are also many other research projects investigating other aspects of malaria, such as a vaccine for this deadly disease. While malaria is a curable disease if noticed early enough, there are still hundreds and hundreds of deaths due to malaria every year. This is because not everyone has access to the medicines that can be used to prevent this awful disease. In the last couple of years, a lot of progress has been made in developing a cure or vaccine for malaria. Hopefully, one will be developed within the next few years. Works Cited World Book Millenium 2000, pages 95-96 The New Complete Medical and Health Encyclopedia Volume Two, pages 591-593 Encyclopedia of Family Health, pages 993-996

Monday, August 19, 2019

Free Essays - The Character of Elizabeth Bennet in Pride and Prejudice :: Pride Prejudice Essays

The Character of Elizabeth Bennet in Pride and Prejudice "Pride and Prejudice" the novel by Jane Austin has a main theme of romance, but many other sub themes are present. I intend to demonstrate that Elizabeth Bennet is an interesting character in the book. The man plot of the story revolves around Elizabeth (or Eliza) Bennet, who belongs to a family of five sisters, and her relationship with eligible bachelor Mr Darcy. However, "Pride and Prejudice" is a very complex novel, with many different subplots going on. One of these is the relationship between Eliza's older sister Jane, and Bingley, Darcy's friend. There are many misunderstandings within their courtship which have an important role in the plot. Elizabeth's father and mother play a part, as do her relations, friends and acquaintances. In the story, Eliza hates Darcy at first, thinking him proud, but overcomes her prejudice and comes round to loving him in the end, and the two marry, as do Jane and Bingley. Another marriage is between Lydia, Elizabeth's younger sister, and Wickham, a man who Eliza was initially interested in. However, his true character comes to light, and his marriage proves to be far from uneventful. One reason why Elizabeth proves to be a very interesting character is her close friendship with her older sister Jane. The pair know each other very well, and they both feel a need to confide in one another due to the less that charming personality traits of the rest of their family. They are the only sensible ones if the household. Due to their constant contact, that are able to tell each other's moods with great ease, Eliza especially. When Jane returns from seeing Bingley "Elizabeth instantly read her feelings", so we know that they spend a lot of time in each other's company. Elizabeth obviously cares deeply about Jane, because when the later becomes ill while at Netherfield, Darcy's home, Eliza takes it upon herself to walk three miles through the mud to visit her. This greatly surprises the Netherfield party, but Eliza appears unconcerned. She mostly stays by Jane's bedside during the visit, preferring her company to the superciliousness of Miss Bingley and Hurst.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Existence Of God :: essays research papers

Existence of God   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The truth behind the existence of god. As a flesh and blood we seem to aspire to be ultitmley immortal, we have created stories guidelines ways in which we our able to become immortal. Christins call it jesus others call it alla or buddua. Does this make one better then the other or is just a set of rules that we all follow just so mankind can prosper. Is faith a trait that is leared or is it a proptey that we our all born with the ability to belive.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The questions we have this is a trait the abilitty to reason is a trait, but what scares us so terribly bad is whaen we cant answer a question. We study we learn but the idea that many of us have not leared is that faith is not imortality or heaven or hell but our faith in ourselves and faith in our fellow man.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  What scares me so bad is the fact that many people hide in this world of god. God is what created us what made us it is what we must ultitmley answer to. We answer as not flesh and blood but as a spirit we choose long before our mortal body goes where we go. We leave behind our bodys and enter into a realm to which we cannot comphrend. Our minds well never allow us to comprhend immortality but our souls can that is faith.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This faith belongs to no clan of self righteous humn being that think that becuse there rules that they follow our better then another. Se the truth is god does not have a check list of whos good and whos bad but rather he make the decision we have morals or as some calit a concous. This world is about the first stepping stone that we take this is a test can you live in an imperfect world and handle without cheating your fellow man. This is faith in yourself this life.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  God gave us life it is our choice wether we use it to its follow view or we cash in early and take the easy way out. Is a gamble much like a stock in a company we own our own stock we have a value this is a value that we place. The question that you must ask yourself what value is yours. Our you a sellout our you willing to give up everything you have for an easy buck or our you willing to ride the rollercoaster of life following it rules so you can exsisit.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Islamic Art and Architecture; Influence and Effects Essay

Introduction During the reign of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughal rulers, architecture and art took on more meaning than it had in the past. The types of architecture and manuscript writing have had both symbolic significance and influence on the people of these empires. The architecture can be said to have had the greatest impact on the presence of power and devotion to Islamic arts of all of the empires, while manuscripts were held privately until trends influenced their spread over greater distances and people. The Ottomans, in their quest to expand their lands and influence, conquered Constantinople in 1453, which sparked a major period of construction in the new capital of the Ottoman Empire. This large building initiative took place in order to encourage a repopulating of Istanbul, as well as the revitalization of the economy in this declining city. The buildings and complexes the Ottomans built shed an interesting light on their concerns and ideals. For example, while the complexes were mainly built as places of worship, they took on other roles, such as, centers for education, commerce, and hospital care. One complex is clear in its intentions to the public, as can be seen by the endowment deed, which read â€Å" to elevate matters of religion and religious sciences in order to strengthen the mechanisms of worldly sovereignty and to reach happiness in the afterworld†, (Bloom & Blair, 298). This combination of buildings in a complex format drew people from the old capital and cities of the empire, and generated revenue that amassed into fortunes for the rulers of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans, however, were not the only empire to enjoy great wealth and displays of that wealth. The Mughals, who descended from the same Turkish conquerors as the Ottomans, also enjoyed prosperity from great building projects. The architecture of the Mughals was able to change with great regularity during its time, due to the constant movement of the central government. The Mughals also benefited from a blend of styles and influences to create their palaces. The most famous example of Mughal architecture was the Taj Mahal, which was built in the memory of a deceased favorite wife. In the building of temples and tombs in Mughal history, it is quite common to find them built as reminders to the community of saints, heroes, or loved ones. It was  also common to find that they lacked as muc h fine detail as their neighbors to the west, but brought new styles to the architecture derived from the rich traditions of the people of India. Unlike the Ottomans and The Mughal, the Safavids were derived from the family lineage of Mohammed the prophet. Despite this difference, the Safavids built great temples and complexes for similar reasons. The Safavids built great complexes, and like the Ottomans, they moved their capital to a centralized location in order to centralize power, and increase commerce. The Safavids also shared another trait in building with the Ottomans. They both had a strong emphasis on education, and liked to keep a watchful eye over it. For this reason, religious complexes often included the highest forms of education for both the government and the religion of Islam. Though in competition for much of their histories, the Ottomans and Safavids adhered to many of the same architectural styles, with one major difference. Due to their difference in branches of Islam, the Safavids, unlike their Sunni neighbors the Ottomans, had little problem with diverging from traditional customs of avoiding the use of depictions of animals and people in their design. This proved to enhance the appearance of the buildings, but also give them a unique place in the history of Islamic buildings. Manuscripts, on the other hand, have a very different history than do the magnificent buildings of the Islamic world. In the Ottoman Empire, as was true of most of the Muslim world, the Koran was the most copied manuscript. Copies of the Koran were reproduced with astonishing art, but were usually given as gifts to other rulers. In this system, the common person was excluded from viewing the finest manuscripts. Common manuscripts were produced by artisans, but lacked the high quality of that of the royal courts. The Ottomans also used their talents to reproduce manuscripts that depicted great rulers and events in history, as well as topography paintings that displayed the prominence of conquest in the Ottomans daily life. Ottoman manuscripts were not as popular or unique as the ones created by the Safavids or Mughals, but they did posses superiority in the ar t of calligraphy. Manuscripts from the Safavid and Mughal empires possessed greater detail in art, but most of the calligraphers were not as skilled as those of the Ottoman Empire. Despite this lack of good calligraphy, the Safavids and Mughals were more skilled in art and design. Like the Ottomans, the Mughals and Safavid empires copied  the Koran at a high rate, but only the best works of art were given away as gifts. This lack of quality reproductions, which included not only writing, but also painting, led to the decline of the bound book. This decline led to the development of an industry of artisans creating single manuscripts. These manuscripts allowed for both artistic differences that were hard to avoid in large manuscripts, and it allowed more people to posses art. They were collected into books, but they had a greater impact on both the people of the Muslim world and the Europeans, who were exploring the area heavily in search of people to colonize. The arrival of the Europeans also led to a decline in the production of small manuscripts, due to the fact that the printing press and mass production of books were arriving in Europe. Conclusion Islamic art and architecture both had more than one use in Islamic life. The architecture reminded the people of saints, great rulers, martyrs, or beloved figures, as well as serving as a center for religion, education, commerce, and medicine. The art of the Islamic world was originally used to tell of battles, heroes, and most popularly recreate the Koran. Art also allowed for the growth of writing, painting, and the distribution of ideas over greater distances than the spoken word. Both Islamic art and architecture still hold as reminders to Muslims and the world that great rulers, conquerors, and artists have made a lasting impact on the region and its culture.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Importance of Deductive Reasoning Essay

It is very important to understand what is known prior to making a decision. All facts need to be reviewed, wrote out, and reviewed again. By doing this it will help you in making your decision accurately. For example, the DQ question we had this week, I reviewed all facts, wrote them down, and went to figure out the solution by reviewing the facts step-by-step. After I done this, then I went over everything again, and had the same solution, that there could be more than one advisor. I then submitted my answer. After doing this, I saw that another classmate had a different solution than mine so, I went back to review all the facts again, I could then see that my solution was accurate, and so was my classmates. This activity was very interesting, because there could several different solutions. If I had reviewed only part of the facts, or not used critical thinking, then I would have definitely made the wrong decision. The role of deductive reasoning in the decision- making process is a very important one. If you do not understand all the information that you are given, or if you just understand part of the information that you are given, than you will more than likely to make the wrong decision. This is why you should make sure that you understand all the information & facts that you are given, and think critically on all information so you can make an accurate decision. If you take the time to review, understand all of the facts that you are given this will help you in the decision making process. Deductive reasoning, and decision making is both part of the thinking process, when using them to together you this will aid you in making the right decision. Deductive reasoning is a method that helps you in gaining knowledge, which is a very important component in the decision making process. The process of deductive reasoning aids in understanding an argument by helping you to clearly understand all of the facts. When you deductive reason, you are thinking critically which will assist you in understanding the argument, and will also assist in making the right final decision. When reading the 5 arguments that were given, as I was reading I was critically thinking on each fact or bit of information given. For example, on buying a car if any information was left out, you could see yourself leaning to agree with Sally but, then seeing Mark’s point of view, his old car is fine for now, he hates to go on debt with the knowledge that Sally is pregnant. But, then Sally wants a safe, reliable, dependable vehicle for the children. If the fact that Sally was pregnant were not stated then that would change the whole decision- making process. This is why it is important to have, and understand all facts to help assist you in the decision-making process.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Lyndon B. Johnson Essay

Lyndon B. Johnson’s presidential reign began with the assassination of former president John F. Kennedy in 1963. While the people of the United States tried to recover from the loss of Kennedy, Johnson used it to his advantage. Many citizens did not notice that this was being done, and some even wonder if Johnson himself knew he was using it to his advantage. By him telling America that Kennedy would have wanted the Great Society, the people believed him and went through with it. Many things, both good an bad came out of the Great Society. The Great Society was Johnson’s way of fixing the problems in America, that being the political, emotional and mostly the social problems. Johnson used the nations grief to pass the civil rights bill. It had the same idea of the bill Kennedy was planning on passing, but the difference was that Johnson’s was stronger and more powerful. This act was passed in July of 1964, and it outlawed radical discrimination in all public places. Places that included hotels, and restaurants, it banned the discrimination of unions, and the employers and even programs that were funded by the federal government. The civil rights act was not the only thing passed in 1964 though, he also passed the Economic Opportunity Act. As seen in document B, the act was made to help people in poverty. It started head start, a preschool program funded by the government, and gave workers and farmers money to break through and escape from poverty. It improved what was being done in our nation at that time, and became a milestone for our 180-year search for a better life for our people. With these couple of acts being formed it did help our poverty rates change. When you look at document H you can see that in 1959 before Johnson’s presidency, the poverty rate was at 55.1 for blacks, 18.1 for whites, and 53.3 for all non-whites. Once the acts were formed the rates went down a little and were recorded in 1966 by about 15 percent except for whites, the whites only went down 7 percent. They kept decreasing until 1974 where they were last recorded in the document at 29.5 percent for all non-whites, 31.4 for blacks, and 8.9 for whites. The white race was effected the most by this and they decreased the most out of all of races. Now with the change of the  poverty rates, Johnson also tried to help with medical prices. He started insurance programs such as Medicare for seniors and Medicaid for the poor. Document A shows Abraham Ribcoff testifying before the House of Representatives about the prices of medical care. The discovery of more advanced medical sciences and life spans lasting longer, the elders and poor need more help paying these bills and with Medicare and Medicaid help will be provided. Now the Great Society was a huge deal during Lyndon B. Johnson’s presidency. Probably because it had a huge impact on America to this day. Johnson poured millions, even billions of dollars into building a perfect society. While he was putting money into this, he was spending money trying to help with the Vietnam War. Document E is a perfect cartoon of what was happening in the time period. Johnson knew that we could not win the war, but he kept us fighting. Many lives were lost, and more and more money was spilt into it. The idea of his Great Society fed right into the war. So much money was lost into the US economy and it is money that we have not gotten back. People were disappointed with Johnson because he kept us fighting, but he did not under their anger. In document F, an interview of Johnson in 1967, he states, â€Å"How is it possible that all these people could be so ungrateful to me after I had given them so much?†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He has a point where he had done a lot , but this was nothing compared to the pain families had felt over their loved ones. Johnson was not the only political figure during this ear that made a strong impact on civil rights. Several supreme court cases were occurring at this time between the Miranda rights, and when Plessy was overturned by Brown. Along with Baker v. Carr and Engel v. Vitale. All of these impacted women and blacks. Betty Freedan was against the perfect life idea for women. Where they need to be the perfect wife for their husbands and how it was every woman’s dream. Betty had this life and it was not her dream. Blacks wanted full rights, no more segregation between them. With these two together the civil rights movement began. More information on these two groups are found in document C and D. Johnson faced a lot during his presidency, and he made it through all of it. He made a large impact on American’s life. Economically he put us into a severe struggle, but he did help with medical care, and schooling for children. Socially we now have equal rights, and the civil rights movement did work after a while. We all get along in schools and those movements started it all. Politically he was not the best president, but they all have ups and downs. My own opinion, Johnson was an okay president. Life was difficult then, but many of those difficult things made the life we live today a lot better.

Body Ritual Among the Nacirema

Connor Doyle Summary of Body Ritual among the Nacirema 10/20/2012 Introduction to Sociology The Nacirema Horace Miner depicted this cultural group located in Northwest America â€Å"living in the territory between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles† (Miner 503). Closely imitating the United States of America. If you take a look at the Nacirema's name spelled backwards, its American. The concept behind this is that Miner wanted to describe American's rituals in a way that people would deem crazy.But in all actuality, it's what us humans do everyday and never think twice of it. For if we forgot to do one of these things, we would feel uncomfortable all day long. â€Å"According to Nacirema mythology, their nation was originated by a culture hero, Notgnihsaw,† Hines describes that, â€Å"he was known for two great feats of strength—the throwing of a piece of wampum across the river Pa-To-Mac and the chopp ing down of a cherry tree in which the Spitit of Truth resided† (Miner 503). This is referring to, what many religions call, God. It's a universal feeling that everyone wants to encounter, that their is a higher power somewhere.He then goes on to say the â€Å"Nacirema culture is charecterized by a highly developed market economy which has evolved in a rich natural habitat† (Miner 503). This is refering to our Free Market Economy. The way we evolved in a â€Å"rich natural habitat†, is that we've always been prosepering since our birth as a country. With the exceptions of some down falls, we have been the world's leading power. It states that the Nacirema focus a lot of activity on the human body and its appearance. He states that it is a dominate concern, making every other aspect in life second best.Though many cultures have similar rituals to this, regarding the body, these aspects on society are quite unique. They even believe that their own human body is ugl y making it a natural reaction to try and improve your situation. They also acknowledge the fact that the human body deterioates and attracts disease. Since man knows these facts, the only option left is to perform rituals regarding the improvement of your body. He says that in every Nacirema's house their is at lease one shrine devoted mainly to the self-improvement of the people. This is refering to what we commonly know as a bathroom.If you really come to think about it, the bathroom is almost souly used for self-improvement. Every action from shaving, to brushing your teeth is preconcieved and is subconcsiously telling you that you need these things everyday. He goes on to say that â€Å"the rituals associated with it are not family ceremonies but are private and secret. † Then he states that the only time you really talk about these rituals are to your children, and only telling them the basics while they are still growing up. Another big part of the Nacirema culture is the medicine man.He is the only one that knows what is in the secret potion. Every Nacirema believes that if they are to go without these magic potions, they would cease to live. It goes hand in hand with the culture of our society. If people don't have a cure for the smallest thing, they still feel vulnerable. We rely on so many perscriptions, medications, and cure-alls for a quick fix. Without these things, we as a society would feel completely weak. They say that the medicine man can only work if they recieve â€Å"substantial gifts† (Miner 504), which is the same for our doctors as well.Even when the Nacirema have been done with the charms, they still keep the expired remains in their drawer just for safety. In fear that without these charms, they would remain vulnerable. The medicine man is even able to make a women's breast larger or smaller, depending on the request. The holy man, refered to in the Nacirema culture, is what we commonly know as the Dentist. Miner says t hat in addition to brushing and maintaing their teeth, they visit a â€Å"holy-mouth-man once or twice a year. They refer to a Dentist tool's as â€Å"paraphernalia, consisting of a variety of augers, awls, probes, and prods† (Miner 504). To the untrained eye that's what it looks like. Not many other cultures around the world, that are not as prosperous, ever make visits to a Dentist. They go on to say that â€Å"these objects in the exorcism of the evils of the mouth involves almost unbelievable ritual torture of the client† (Miner 505). Their has always been a fear of pain when attending the Dentist. Young children dread going every year, but to their parents and their society it is standard to have a high maintance mouth.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Allegations of children rights and human rights violations by British American Tobacco

Allegations of children rights and human rights violations by British American Tobacco British American Tobacco has set their goals to be the leading company in the industry, knowing that, they have to be able to select and apply the best business strategies. But being one of the leading tobacco firms in the UK, British American Tobacco is known to purchase tobacco from Indonesia, where they can not guarantee that the tobacco is not made from child labor. Although that every tobacco firms in the world have the responsibility to monitor and investigate on how their tobacco is harvested in their farms, they still can not control on the actual process applied in the farming. According to, Human Rights Watch have conducted research in 2014 and 2015 ini tobacco farming in Indonesia where they interviewed more than 100 children under 18 who work there. These children are risking their health and wellness working harvesting tobacco by hand, said the Human Rights Watch. Many of these children have in fact suffered from nausea and vomitting due to being around tobacco so much. Children are known to work through long hours in these farms, without even wearing any protective garments while handling these tobacco. These surely sound terrible, especially when it is the company’s responsibilities to make sure that no child under the age of 18 work in direct with tobacco. British American Tobacco is one of the multinational companies that have committed to the International Labour Organisations (ILO) right conventions. These companies in the conventions have agreed that the minimum age for children to work is 15 years old, whereas the minimum age for the hazardous work is 18 years old. Yet they still can not guarantee, because they claim to cannot be â€Å"everywhere at once†. British American Tobacco mentioned that their subsidiary, Bentoel, takes the child labour issue very seriously. â€Å"We do not employ children in any of our operations worldwide and make it clear to all of our contracted farmers and suppliers that exploitative child labour will not be tolerated. In Indonesia, however, children often participate in agriculture to help their families, and to learn farming methods and skills from their elders† BAT said. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) also knows that working while the children are in school can be a norma l part of growing up in poor communities, because of the rural environment they are in. British American Tobacco is said to be working with the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco growing foundation (ECLT) to tackle extreme child labour in these areas in Indonesia. Not only in Indonesia, British American Tobacco has also vowed back in 2016 to investigate some of its farms located in Bangladesh after Swedwatch, a Swedish campaign group uncovered the truth that the farms use could workers to grow and process tobacco, carrying loads, cutting the stems, and cure the tobacco. These children are reportedly being pulled out of school to work in the farm for as long as 16 hours a day. These working activities surely grows out the risk of health for these children, because they are very much exposed to tobacco plants, the dust, and the smoke. Group Head of Corporate Affairs at British American Tobacco, Simon Cleverly has told that the company has in fact investigated the report’s findings but found no evidence of children rights and human rights violations. He also claime d the British American Tobacco were consistent with the findings of these studies held by themselves to look into tobacco growing and farming process and found that the company has a positive impact on the socio-economic area in Bangladesh. Up until now, British American Tobacco is still very much sure that they have not done anything wrong in the process of harvesting their tobacco in these countries, and that they believe that they have mutual benefits with the countries they have been working with for years.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Biological Influences-U2-IP Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Biological Influences-U2-IP - Essay Example So the mind received the maximum effect of coarseness and sent stimuli to feel that. After a minute or two (not for a long time) if again rubbed, the time is not sufficiently large enough to forget the coarseness of the sand paper. This time the sand paper was rubbed with index finger having a perception about its coarseness. This type of adaptation of the mind to the situation decreases its extent of stimuli and as a result the perception of coarseness is up to less extent when the sand paper was rubbed for 2nd time. Here the adaptation was evident by touch.Take two cups of water.The first one will be sugar mixed water and the second with fresh water. Now the sip of the sugar mixed water was taken and swished around in the mouth for some time.This action made the water to mix with saliva in the mouth.As a result the sweetness of it was decreased. Another factor also may contribute to the decrease of sweetness of the sugar water. (When swished (liquid) or chewed (solid) the sugars in the substance will be disintegrated to smaller molecules of sugar and the carbohydrates also to the level of smaller molecules of sugar.This makes the sweet food to taste less sweet and the carbohydrate food a little bit sweeter after chewing it for some time.)By the time the sugar water tastes less sweet than its real taste the taste buds were adapted to its sweet taste.

Monday, August 12, 2019

Privacy about Emailing, AIM or MSN Messenger Essay

Privacy about Emailing, AIM or MSN Messenger - Essay Example It can be a privacy issue because it can identify the location of the user to the receiver because their I.P address is indicated during the process. This is dangerous especially when the user logs into insecure chat rooms to talk to individuals who are strangers. The internet messaging services share a similar implication to emailing, and can easily be applied to forward spam messaging that generate slow progress towards completion of delegated duties. The other provision that the IM and emailing service provide is witnessed in the transfer of viruses that could be transferred from one machine across a network. There is privacy breached in accessing information about the user even when there is no logging process because the information is accorded the server. These systems have proved vulnerable to breach with the society containing system hackers who are capable of obtaining information through tracing vital information on the server system. Recommended technological Solutions The first realization that users should note is that the IM system is not the most secure means to relay information or store vital individual components. There should be application of alternative means if the nature of the information being passed is important in achieving progress (Willner 5). There are limited measures to hide the IP address but an option is given to seize using the automatic logging process. The sites should be accessed only on necessary areas with a careful observation to reduce the online time. AOL has been developed to limit the amount of messages that a server is capable of transmitting. It further applies measures to gain control over the recipient of the messages. This may be implemented through blocking the person that is to receive the message and only allow access when there is the need. In controlling the rate of virus transfer between machines, there should be identification of the secure files. This measure is applied in attributing the source of the r eceived files. The valuable contribution that can be connected to this problem is via applying updated antivirus software in the machine. There is a measure that is applied to block or reduce the IM service through shutting down ports. Moreover, there needs to be an implementation of security policies that define their operations. These rules are expected to regulate on the utilization f the type of software in the policies, and the legislative measure that would be implemented when the set regulations are breached. Before engaging in any communication exercise, the message logging can be disabled. ICQ is provides a system for automatic logging on first users, but the option can be disabled to reduce security risks. This is then vital because the users are not identified during the log in process. Developed Solutions The solutions to reduce the privacy risks are witnessed in applying the measures to hide the identity of user information by disabling the automated logging system. Thi s is applied by most individuals who access the IM systems on pubic environs like in the cyber cafes. These areas provide minimal security for personal information, and the individual may be exposed to demeaning acts that may threaten to invade their private life setting. The measure that can be applied to ensure that the security is maintained would be through clearing the

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Inventory Accounting for Product Lines Case Study

Inventory Accounting for Product Lines - Case Study Example The custom auto and motorcycle paints are not distinguishable items as distinctively as the automobile kits. They have a shelf life of 60 days which means that paints entering the inventory must be leaving it within 60 days or else they will be identified by the expired coloration. This suggests a running inventory line where the inventory moves linearly. The paints bought first are sold first and the paints bought last are sold last. But since the inventory is not linearly distributed i.e. it cannot be ascertained as to how many days a particular paint has been sitting in the warehouse, the most appropriate inventory costing system would be average costing. This would mean that the cost of goods sold will incorporate the linear movement of inventory and allow for averaged costs over time. Average based costing would ensure that the proportions of the paints sold would be used to estimate the final COGS - weighted averages have significant accuracy in such inventory models. The other items in inventory (bulbs, stickers, fuses, etc) are low-priced items and the shuffli

Saturday, August 10, 2019

Paper about self deception Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Paper about self deception - Essay Example For instance, there is a tendency to believe that African Americans are generally good basketball players. Although this is a positive stereotyping, this also indicates that people will also indulge in negative stereotypes (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 220). One important influence is the media as often news articles are biased towards certain communities like the blacks, Hispanics or the Jewish. In order to gain viewership from the majority groups, media often focuses on crime committed by the minorities as viewers would better respond to this. Thus, media perpetuates racial stereotyping by indicating blacks are more crime prone than the whites. It is not always true that people consider all the factors before making judgmental decisions in a rational way. Robert B. Cialdini suggests that people are often restricted by time or distance and so they tend to make their decisions based on cognitive shortcuts known as judgmental heuristics. According to Cialdini, â€Å"we must very often use our sterotypes, our rules of thumb, to classify things according to a few key features and then to respond without thinking when one or another of these trigger features is present† (Triche, 18). Racial stereotyping occurs not from judging one individual but by attributing certain characteristics to a group of people. It is based on irrational knowledge collected from various sources. Therefore, although stereotyping can lead to cognitive shortcuts they often lead to false results. Stereotyping hinders development of human thought and social progress. Stereotyping involves cognitive component, i.e. ideas that people connect with a certain group or community based on their culture and society. This process of stereotyping includes â€Å"encoding and storage of stereotype concepts, the selection and activation of these concepts into working memory and their

Discuss character development in Everyday Use Essay

Discuss character development in Everyday Use - Essay Example She even decides to change her name, though its history may be traced back to the Civil War â€Å"I couldnt bear it any longer, being named after the people who oppress me†. Instead, she chooses name Wangero, which her mother finds difficult to pronounce. What Dee desires is to become a new person. It becomes obvious that Dee’s mother and sister worship her. It is noticeable from the first lines. â€Å"Sometimes I dream a dream in which Dee and I are suddenly brought together on a TV program of this sort† acknowledges her mother. What she wants is to achieve her daughter’s approval. At the same time, Dee is unlikely to desire it. What she seeks seems to be attention and personal meaning. Even more, she seems to behave like a selfish, arrogant, and insensitive person. The story is told on behalf of Mama, that is why readers are not given an opportunity to trace the way Dee thinks. Instead, readers are offered to judge her by her actions, words, and relations to others. For example, these lines â€Å"At sixteen she had a style of her own: and knew what style was†. It says a lot about a girl who comes from a family which leads a labor-intensive life. â€Å"In real life I am a large, big-boned woman with rough, man-working hands† that is how Mama describes herself. At the very beginning readers understand that Dee is totally different. She wants to be a part of idealistic Africa. Consequently, she rejects actual experience and severe realities that Afro-Americans face. That is what unites her with Hakim-a-barber. This couple stands in stark contrast to Dee’s mother and sister. At the same time, readers may only guess what kind of relationships Dee has with this man. â€Å"They didnt tell me, and I didnt ask, whether Wangero (Dee) had really gone and married him† comments Mama. It is clear that Maggie and Mama cannot let themselves live in a world of illusions. At the same time, rustic realism of their world becomes a

Friday, August 9, 2019

Realism and Constructivism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Realism and Constructivism - Essay Example The main signpost that helps political realism to find its way through the landscape of international politics is the concept of interest defined in terms of power. This concept provides the link between reason trying to understand international politics and the facts to be understood. It sets politics as an autonomous sphere of action and understanding apart from other spheres, such as economics (understood in terms of interest defined as wealth), ethics, aesthetics, or religion. Without such a concept a theory of politics, international or domestic, would be altogether impossible, for without it we could not distinguish between political and nonpolitical facts, nor could we bring at least a measure of systematic order to the political sphere. Realism assumes that its key concept of interest defined as power is an objective category which is universally valid, but it does not endow that concept with a meaning that is fixed once and for all. The idea of interest is indeed of the esse nce of politics and is unaffected by the circumstances of time and place. Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe. As it distinguishes between truth and opinion, so it distinguishes between truth and idolatry. All nations are tempted-and few have been able to resist the temptation for long-to clothe their own particular aspirations and actions in the moral purposes of the universe. The difference between political realism and other schools is real.... 4. Political realism is aware of the moral significance of political action. 5. Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe. As it distinguishes between truth and opinion, so it distinguishes between truth and idolatry. All nations are tempted-and few have been able to resist the temptation for long-to clothe their own particular aspirations and actions in the moral purposes of the universe. 6. The difference, then, between political realism and other schools of thought is real, and it is profound. However much the theory of political realism may have been misunderstood and misinterpreted, there is no gainsaying its distinctive intellectual and moral attitude to matters political. Source: (Morgenthau, 1978) Realism then is the more practical approach in understanding society. It takes into account the inherent nature of man in the understanding of their decisions and actions. What governs man is their interest more than their ideologies and ethics. This is the underlying belief behind realism. Therefore the term realism needs no further definition or explanation, everything it encapsulated in the word. Of the threads that make up the Realist school, the most important ideas include: International relations are amenable of objective study. Events can be described in terms of laws, in much the way that a theory in the sciences might be described. These laws remain true at all places and times. The state is the most important actor. At times the state may be represented by the city-state, empire, kingdom or tribe. Implicit in this is that supra-national structures, sub-national ones and individuals are of lesser importance. Thus the